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Data sets coming fron different sources sometimes required the harmonization of the schemata and data formats prior to interlinking. For this purpose, Silk enables the user to create and execute lightweight transformation rules.

Transformation rules may be used for: Data cleaning, e. Converting between different data formats. Silk Workbench is a web application which guides the user through the process of interlinking different data sources.

Silk Workbench offers the following features: It enables the user to manage different sets of data sources, linking tasks and transformation tasks.

It offers a graphical editor which enables the user to easily create and edit linking tasks and transformation tasks.

As finding a good linking heuristics is usually an iterative process, the Silk Workbench makes it possible for the user to quickly evaluate the links which are generated by the current link specification.

It allows the user to create and edit a set of reference links used to evaluate the current link specification.

Documentation of the Silk Workbench is available in the Wiki. A single thread filament is too thin to use on its own so women combine many threads to produce a thicker, usable fiber.

They do this by hand-reeling the threads onto a wooden spindle to produce a uniform strand of raw silk. The process takes around 40 hours to produce a half kilogram of silk.

Many local operations use a reeling machine for this task, but some silk threads are still hand-reeled.

The difference is that hand-reeled threads produce three grades of silk: two fine grades that are ideal for lightweight fabrics, and a thick grade for heavier material.

The silk fabric is soaked in extremely cold water and bleached before dyeing to remove the natural yellow coloring of Thai silk yarn.

To do this, skeins of silk thread are immersed in large tubs of hydrogen peroxide. Once washed and dried, the silk is woven on a traditional hand-operated loom.

The Rajshahi Division of northern Bangladesh is the hub of the country's silk industry. There are three types of silk produced in the region: mulberry, endi and tassar.

Bengali silk was a major item of international trade for centuries. It was known as Ganges silk in medieval Europe.

Bengal was the leading exporter of silk between the 16th and 19th centuries. In the Odyssey , Aristotle wrote of Coa vestis , a wild silk textile from Kos.

Sea silk from certain large sea shells was also valued. The Roman Empire knew of and traded in silk, and Chinese silk was the most highly priced luxury good imported by them.

Legend has it that monks working for the emperor Justinian I smuggled silkworm eggs to Constantinople in hollow canes from China. All top-quality looms and weavers were located inside the Great Palace complex in Constantinople, and the cloth produced was used in imperial robes or in diplomacy, as gifts to foreign dignitaries.

The remainder was sold at very high prices. In Islamic teachings, Muslim men are forbidden to wear silk. Many religious jurists believe the reasoning behind the prohibition lies in avoiding clothing for men that can be considered feminine or extravagant.

Modern attire has raised a number of issues, including, for instance, the permissibility of wearing silk neckties , which are masculine articles of clothing.

Italy was the most important producer of silk during the Medieval age. The first center to introduce silk production to Italy was the city of Catanzaro during the 11th century in the region of Calabria.

The silk of Catanzaro supplied almost all of Europe and was sold in a large market fair in the port of Reggio Calabria , to Spanish, Venetian, Genovese and Dutch merchants.

Catanzaro became the lace capital of the world with a large silkworm breeding facility that produced all the laces and linens used in the Vatican.

The city was world-famous for its fine fabrication of silks, velvets, damasks and brocades. Another notable center was the Italian city-state of Lucca which largely financed itself through silk-production and silk-trading, beginning in the 12th century.

Other Italian cities involved in silk production were Genoa , Venice and Florence. The Silk Exchange in Valencia from the 15th century—where previously in also perxal percale was traded as some kind of silk—illustrates the power and wealth of one of the great Mediterranean mercantile cities.

Silk was produced in and exported from the province of Granada , Spain, especially the Alpujarras region, until the Moriscos , whose industry it was, were expelled from Granada in Since the 15th century, silk production in France has been centered around the city of Lyon where many mechanic tools for mass production were first introduced in the 17th century.

James I attempted to establish silk production in England, purchasing and planting , mulberry trees, some on land adjacent to Hampton Court Palace , but they were of a species unsuited to the silk worms, and the attempt failed.

In John Guardivaglio set up a silk throwing enterprise at Logwood mill in Stockport ; in , Burton Mill was erected in Macclesfield ; and in Old Mill was built in Congleton.

British enterprise also established silk filature in Cyprus in In England in the midth century, raw silk was produced at Lullingstone Castle in Kent.

The necktie originates from the cravat , a neckband made from silk [42] [43] [44]. Wild silk taken from the nests of native caterpillars was used by the Aztecs to make containers and as paper.

Silk production for local consumption has continued until the present day, sometimes spinning wild silk. King James I introduced silk-growing to the British colonies in America around , ostensibly to discourage tobacco planting.

The Shakers in Kentucky adopted the practice. The history of industrial silk in the United States is largely tied to several smaller urban centers in the Northeast region.

Beginning in the s, Manchester, Connecticut emerged as the early center of the silk industry in America, when the Cheney Brothers became the first in the United States to properly raise silkworms on an industrial scale; today the Cheney Brothers Historic District showcases their former mills.

This economy particularly gained traction in the vicinity of Northampton, Massachusetts and its neighboring Williamsburg , where a number of small firms and cooperatives emerged.

Among the most prominent of these was the cooperative utopian Northampton Association for Education and Industry, of which Sojourner Truth was a member.

Over the next 50 years he and his sons would maintain relations between the American silk industry and its counterparts in Japan, [50] and expanded their business to the point that by , the Skinner Mill complex contained the largest silk mill under one roof in the world, and the brand Skinner Fabrics had become the largest manufacturer of silk satins internationally.

World War II interrupted the silk trade from Asia, and silk prices increased dramatically. Synthetic silks have also been made from lyocell , a type of cellulose fiber, and are often difficult to distinguish from real silk see spider silk for more on synthetic silks.

In Terengganu , which is now part of Malaysia , a second generation of silkworm was being imported as early as for the country's silk textile industry, especially songket.

The process of silk production is known as sericulture. Once the worms start pupating in their cocoons, these are dissolved in boiling water in order for individual long fibres to be extracted and fed into the spinning reel.

It takes about silkworms to make a pure silk kimono. The environmental impact of silk production is potentially large when compared with other natural fibers.

A life cycle assessment of Indian silk production shows that the production process has a large carbon and water footprint, mainly due to the fact that it is an animal-derived fiber and more inputs such as fertilizer and water are needed per unit of fiber produced.

The fibroin-heavy chain is composed mostly of beta-sheets , due to a mer amino acid repeat sequence with some variations. The cross-section from other silkworms can vary in shape and diameter: crescent-like for Anaphe and elongated wedge for tussah.

Silkworm fibers are naturally extruded from two silkworm glands as a pair of primary filaments brin , which are stuck together, with sericin proteins that act like glue , to form a bave.

See cited reference for cross-sectional SEM photographs. Silk has a smooth, soft texture that is not slippery, unlike many synthetic fibers. Its elasticity is moderate to poor: if elongated even a small amount, it remains stretched.

It can be weakened if exposed to too much sunlight. It may also be attacked by insects, especially if left dirty.

One example of the durable nature of silk over other fabrics is demonstrated by the recovery in of silk garments from a wreck of : 'The most durable article found has been silk; for besides pieces of cloaks and lace, a pair of black satin breeches, and a large satin waistcoat with flaps, were got up, of which the silk was perfect, but the lining entirely gone No articles of dress of woollen cloth have yet been found.

Silk is a poor conductor of electricity and thus susceptible to static cling. Silk has a high emissivity for infrared light, making it feel cool to the touch.

Occasionally, this shrinkage can be reversed by a gentle steaming with a press cloth. There is almost no gradual shrinkage nor shrinkage due to molecular-level deformation.

Natural and synthetic silk is known to manifest piezoelectric properties in proteins, probably due to its molecular structure. Silkworm silk was used as the standard for the denier , a measurement of linear density in fibers.

Silkworm silk therefore has a linear density of approximately 1 den, or 1. Silk emitted by the silkworm consists of two main proteins, sericin and fibroin , fibroin being the structural center of the silk, and serecin being the sticky material surrounding it.

Hydrogen bonds form between chains, and side chains form above and below the plane of the hydrogen bond network.

This is because glycine's R group is only a hydrogen and so is not as sterically constrained. The addition of alanine and serine makes the fibres strong and resistant to breaking.

This tensile strength is due to the many interceded hydrogen bonds, and when stretched the force is applied to these numerous bonds and they do not break.

Silk is resistant to most mineral acids , except for sulfuric acid , which dissolves it. It is yellowed by perspiration.

Chlorine bleach will also destroy silk fabrics. RSF is produced by chemically dissolving silkworm cocoons, leaving their molecular structure intact.

The silk fibers dissolve into tiny thread-like structures known as microfibrils. The resulting solution is extruded through a small opening, causing the microfibrils to reassemble into a single fiber.

The resulting material is reportedly twice as stiff as silk. Silk's absorbency makes it comfortable to wear in warm weather and while active. Its low conductivity keeps warm air close to the skin during cold weather.

It is often used for clothing such as shirts , ties , blouses , formal dresses , high fashion clothes, lining , lingerie , pajamas , robes , dress suits , sun dresses and Eastern folk costumes.

For practical use, silk is excellent as clothing that protects from many biting insects that would ordinarily pierce clothing, such as mosquitoes and horseflies.

Fabrics that are often made from silk include charmeuse , habutai , chiffon , taffeta , crepe de chine , dupioni , noil , tussah , and shantung , among others.

Silk's attractive lustre and drape makes it suitable for many furnishing applications. It is used for upholstery , wall coverings, window treatments if blended with another fiber , rugs , bedding and wall hangings.

Silk had many industrial and commercial uses, such as in parachutes , bicycle tires , comforter filling and artillery gunpowder bags.

A special manufacturing process removes the outer sericin coating of the silk, which makes it suitable as non-absorbable surgical sutures. This process has also recently led to the introduction of specialist silk underclothing, which has been used for skin conditions including eczema.

Silk began to serve as a biomedical material for sutures in surgeries as early as the second century CE [71]. In the past 30 years, it has been widely studied and used as a biomaterial due to its mechanical strength , biocompatibility , tunable degradation rate, ease to load cellular growth factors for example, BMP-2 , and its ability to be processed into several other formats such as films, gels, particles, and scaffolds.

Silks derived from Bombyx mori are generally made of two parts: the silk fibroin fiber which contains a light chain of 25kDa and a heavy chain of kDa or kDa [74] linked by a single disulfide bond [75] and a glue-like protein, sericin , comprising 25 to 30 percentage by weight.

Silk fibroin contains hydrophobic beta sheet blocks, interrupted by small hydrophilic groups. And the beta-sheets contribute much to the high mechanical strength of silk fibers, which achieves MPa, tens of times that of poly lactic acid and hundreds of times that of collagen.

This impressive mechanical strength has made silk fibroin very competitive for applications in biomaterials. Indeed, silk fibers have found their way into tendon tissue engineering, [76] where mechanical properties matter greatly.

In addition, mechanical properties of silks from various kinds of silkworms vary widely, which provides more choices for their use in tissue engineering.

Biocompatibility, i. The issue arose during its increasing clinical use. Wax or silicone is usually used as a coating to avoid fraying and potential immune responses [72] when silk fibers serve as suture materials.

Although the lack of detailed characterization of silk fibers, such as the extent of the removal of sericin, the surface chemical properties of coating material, and the process used, make it difficult to determine the real immune response of silk fibers in literature, it is generally believed that sericin is the major cause of immune response.

Thus, the removal of sericin is an essential step to assure biocompatibility in biomaterial applications of silk. However, further research fails to prove clearly the contribution of sericin to inflammatory responses based on isolated sericin and sericin based biomaterials.

Even though silk sutures serve well, they exist and interact within a limited period depending on the recovery of wounds several weeks , much shorter than that in tissue engineering.

Another concern arises from biodegradation because the biocompatibility of silk fibroin does not necessarily assure the biocompatibility of the decomposed products.

In fact, different levels of immune responses [82] [83] and diseases [84] have been triggered by the degraded products of silk fibroin.

Biodegradability also known as biodegradation —the ability to be disintegrated by biological approaches, including bacteria, fungi, and cells—is another significant property of biomaterials today.

Biodegradable materials can minimize the pain of patients from surgeries, especially in tissue engineering, there is no need of surgery in order to remove the scaffold implanted.

Wang et al. Enzymes are the means used to achieve degradation of silk in vitro. In addition, gamma-radiation , as well as cell metabolism , can also regulate the degradation of silk.

Compared with synthetic biomaterials such as polyglycolides and polylactides , silk is obviously advantageous in some aspects in biodegradation.

The acidic degraded products of polyglycolides and polylactides will decrease the pH of the ambient environment and thus adversely influence the metabolism of cells, which is not an issue for silk.

In addition, silk materials can retain strength over a desired period from weeks to months as needed by mediating the content of beta sheets.

Genetic modification of domesticated silkworms has been used to alter the composition of the silk. Silk moths lay eggs on specially prepared paper.

The eggs hatch and the caterpillars silkworms are fed fresh mulberry leaves. After about 35 days and 4 moltings, the caterpillars are 10, times heavier than when hatched and are ready to begin spinning a cocoon.

A straw frame is placed over the tray of caterpillars, and each caterpillar begins spinning a cocoon by moving its head in a pattern.

Two glands produce liquid silk and force it through openings in the head called spinnerets. Liquid silk is coated in sericin, a water-soluble protective gum, and solidifies on contact with the air.

Within 2—3 days, the caterpillar spins about 1 mile of filament and is completely encased in a cocoon. The silk farmers then heat the cocoons to kill them, leaving some to metamorphose into moths to breed the next generation of caterpillars.

Harvested cocoons are then soaked in boiling water to soften the sericin holding the silk fibers together in a cocoon shape.

The fibers are then unwound to produce a continuous thread. Since a single thread is too fine and fragile for commercial use, anywhere from three to ten strands are spun together to form a single thread of silk.

As the process of harvesting the silk from the cocoon kills the larvae by boiling them, sericulture has been criticized by animal welfare and rights activists.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Fine, lustrous, natural fiber produced by the larvae of various silk moths, especially the species Bombyx mori.

This article is about an animal fiber and the textile woven from it. For other uses, see Silk disambiguation.

Play media. Main article: History of silk. Main article: Wild silk. Main article: Silk industry in China. Main article: Silk in the Indian subcontinent.

Main article: Thai silk. Main article: Rajshahi silk. The Free Dictionary By Farlex. Retrieved 23 May Annual Review of Entomology.

Bibcode : PLoSO Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 27 August Bhanoo 20 May New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 November Retrieved 26 May Retrieved 13 September Latin American insects and entomology.

Berkeley: University of California Press. Appendix E. Archived PDF from the original on 22 September Chinese Silk: A Cultural History.

Rutgers University Press. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Sixth ed. Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on 16 December Live Science.

Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 13 October Archived from the original on 4 January Retrieved 4 October Asian art.

Archived from the original on 8 September

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